Since the early days of video games, there's always been a competitive side. Whether the high scores spewed from arcade classics or the competitive ranking in modern shooters, players have always desired to rank themselves in relation to others in their category.
In recent years, the community around competitive gaming has blossomed, with multiplayer online games placing a bigger focus on player-versus-player combat. This has birthed a new age of competitive gaming known as eSports, which is becoming an increasingly popular topic in both the gaming and sports industries.
What is eSports?
In summary, eSports is the term given to playing video games at a competitive level. More recently, the term has gravitated towards big-budget tournaments with sponsorships and audiences. eSports (derived from electronic sports) often involves opponents facing one another through multiplayer matches, or through a time/score based competition.
Over recent years with the rise of online multiplayer and video streaming, the industry has grown exponentially, reaching a much wider audience. This has resulted in millions of viewers and more potential eSports stars, feeding the corporations hosting tournaments across the world. Between sponsors and tournament prize pools, individuals are now able to earn a living with their gaming skills, similarly to how many professional athletes have operated for years.
In many countries, the support for such tournaments has been on the rise, following the influence from South Korea, where eSports stars are idolized. South Korea is now an eSports hub and acts as proof that mainstream competitive gaming has a place in the modern world. With dedicated stadiums and a cult following for these iconic cyber-athletes, the culture around video games has shifted, setting an example for others to follow.
Are eSports technically considered sports?
As video games have started to be broadcast across well-established sports television networks such as ESPN, casual sports fans have questioned the crossover. Decades-long debates have existed surrounding the legitimacy of chess as a sport and a similar principle applies here.
Based on a strict dictionary definition, a sport requires physical exertion to qualify:
"An activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment."
By the same token, eSports have a similar method of training and preparation and share a commitment to ethics with other sports.
Broadcasts of eSports matches may never seamlessly transition into mainstream networks, with the core sporting audience having little interest in the growing trend. While many gamers hope for eSports to continue growing, its place in the western sports industry is still far from solidified.
Both the audience and commentators of these networks have shown polarized opinions on the topics, some arguing the modernization disregards the legacy the networks were built upon. A notable instance of this was when Colin Cowherd of ESPN/Fox Sports fame threatened to quit over the rise of eSports, referring to the practice as "the nerd equivalent of Band on the Field."
In recent years, heavily established teams in traditional sports have also jumped on board with the trend, hiring their own group of players. These players are given professional coaching with in-depth strategies, mimicking the training process of traditional athletes. While sports teams are beginning to usher in competitive gaming into their rotation, the world is still far from recognizing eSports as a globally accepted activity.
Like professional athletes in traditional sports, eSports players can gain their own followers — and controversies. As the top leagues continue to increase in popularity, the drama between cyber-athletes and their trainers becomes an increasingly common occurrence.
Video games have been around for decades – why are eSports only now gaining traction?
A rapid advancement in networking technologies over the past decade has contributed to the sudden growth in eSports, easily putting competitive gaming into the homes of millions of players and viewers. The entry point to competitive gaming is now easier than ever, giving online communities a simple platform to refine their skills. With internet speeds having soared since the early days of internet-enabled consoles, creating a lag-free experience is much easier for developers.
While the first recorded video gaming tournaments took place in the early 1970's, the integration of online multiplayer was a massive leap to the point we're at today. Companies are now pushing LAN based multiplayer aside, with similar connectivity being offered via official dedicated servers.
On-demand video and more importantly, live-streamed video, has been another major factor in growing eSports communities, with matches accessible via dedicated video gaming streaming sites. By cutting out television broadcasters, matches are now broadcasted live over the internet, bringing millions to watch the biggest matches of the year. In some countries, competitive games have grown larger than the Super Bowl.
The growth of eSports has also influenced game developers, who have started to tailor features to accommodate competitions at a higher level. As this becomes an increasingly common trend, publishers are dropping larger investments to ensure their presence in the competitive scene.
Funding also comes from large hardware manufacturers renowned for producing gaming accessories and PC components, which choose to sponsor teams, or the leagues themselves. Such partnerships can improve the standards of eSports tournaments while additionally advertising the top gaming brands.
What makes a game suitable for eSports?
While competitive gaming isn't restricted to specific games, certain gameplay mechanics play a major role in the game's success at a professional level. Developers are now tailoring their games towards the eSports scene, which makes it harder than ever to gain a large following.
Currently, the most common genres in eSports are multiplayer online battle arenas (MOBAs), first-person shooters and real-time strategy games. Not only do all these genres require a substantial amount of skill and strategy to master, but more importantly, offer entertainment for spectators.
An accessible entry point has also proven to be a large factor in a game's success, with gameplay features understood by the audience. While it's assumed that eSports viewers are invested in the games they watch, an easy-to-grasp premise widens the game's reach to more casual players.
Games which offer features designed for competitive gaming and live-streaming are also becoming more frequent, hoping to foster tournament communities without additional equipment. Titles such as Counter-Strike: Global Offensive and Halo 5: Guardians offer a spectator mode for live viewing, along with private matches with configurable settings, and other elements to expand their competitive reaches.
While hundreds of games are played competitively, here is a brief overview of the top games played in major competitive leagues:
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive brings together the best elements of competitive first-person shooters into a refined competitive experience. With a low price point and an active player base, the 5v5 tactical shooter provides a consistent platform where skill and communication are essential for success. With active support from Valve via frequent updates, the game is now among the biggest titles in the eSports industry.
League of Legends has captured a dedicated player base through its free-to-play model, offering unbeatable MOBA gameplay across a range of maps and characters. The game has been placed at the forefront of eSports in Asia, thanks to a strong investment from publisher and developer, Riot Games. The game has been given a yearly World Championship, bringing the best players in the world into a single venue to compete for over $2 million.
Dota 2, another Valve title, acts as its sole competitor to League of Legends. While the game retains a smaller player base than Riot's world-famous MOBA, heavy investment from Valve has continued to push its eSports presence. The game currently holds the record for the largest prize pool in eSports history, when over $18 million was offered during the game's International Championship in 2015. The monstrous prize pool was accumulated through an in-game item known as the TI5 Compendium, which had a portion of profits donated to the tournament's prize money. The hugely-popular item supplied cosmetic items to players while additionally supporting the game's eSports presence. A similar strategy has since been adopted by more developers to boost community interest in their professional leagues.
Despite the game's decline in sales over recent years, Call of Duty is still a powerhouse in the gaming industry, selling each annual release to millions of gamers. Unlike the titles previously mentioned, Call of Duty is primarily played on consoles, which is becoming a rare occurrence in competitive leagues. As a part of the game's now-terminated partnership with Microsoft, the computing giant invested heavily in Call of Duty's eSports prize pools. This resulted in four consecutive years of $1 million tournaments from the years 2011 to 2014. Since this partnership concluded we're yet to see a large-scale tournament from Sony, but it could happen once 'Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare Remastered' hits shelves this November.
While Halo was known as the king of console eSports in the early 2000s, its relevance has continued to slump with the release of the current-generation of consoles. With Halo 5: Guardians, Microsoft aimed to rejuvenate the game's competitive scene, with various in-game features designed for the competitive player base. This was kickstarted by their official series known as the Halo Championship Series, and a tournament boasting a $2.5 million dollar prize pool in 2016. Surprisingly, this was bigger than any League of Legends prize pool to date, despite a much smaller player base.
Where can I experience eSports online?
A majority of the world's biggest eSports matches are broadcasted through dedicated gaming live-streaming service, Twitch. With a built-in public text chat and other community features, the platform provides a stable place to host the largest eSports events. This is the most convenient place from which to view matches, similar to watching a traditional match on television. Depending on the scale of the tournaments, some events can also be attended in-person. Big-time gaming leagues, such as ESL and MLG also upload previous matches to their official YouTube channels, for on-demand viewing of the best eSports moments.
As with other competitive events, the eSports scene also supports a growing betting culture, with huge profits to be obtained through third-party sites. Through these sites, players are able to bet on ongoing matches between well-established teams, with in-game items and real world money up for grabs. While eSports aren't tailored to the same audience as traditional sports, the industry around it has a growing number of similarities.
Can I participate in competitive gaming?
Getting started in the eSports scene is now relatively easy, with online matches being hosted daily. Nowadays, thanks to online services which match gamers into larger groups, competitive teams can be found with less hassle than ever before.
This doesn't mean that you'll be playing video games for a living any time soon — the industry is still mostly treated as a hobby by most people. Gamers who land sponsorships as professional players get there from years of risk-filled hard work, but others stumble into the scene almost by accident.
In many countries, in-person tournaments are regular occurrences, with only a small entry fee required to be in with a chance of winning. These tournaments are often higher-stake competitions than online-based events, with small prize pools up for grabs. For more information on in-person tournaments, search for upcoming gaming events in your area.
What do you think?
Do you think eSports are legitimate sports? Are you interested in participating in any upcoming eSports events? Make sure to let us know in the comments!
Disclaimer: Images of eSports tournaments have been obtained from ESL