Switches are essentially smart boxes that connect a number of other devices together on a Local Area Network (LAN) and utilize what is called packet switching to forward data to and from said connections. The easiest way to think about a switch is to look at a LAN event where gaming PCs or consoles are hooked up to switches and hubs to connect with one another.
In this case, PCs are connected via ethernet cabling. The actual size of a switch can range from just a handful of ports all the way up to 48 (or more). Switches themselves can be used in the home, a small office or at a location where multiple machines need to be hooked up. There are two basic kinds of switches, managed and unmanaged, and which is best for you depends on your requirements.
Managed Ethernet Switches
A managed switch is a device that can be configured and properly managed to offer a more tailored experience to those who will be utilizing the box. These not only offer tools and the means to monitor the network, but also control over traffic. Managed switches are very much like Virtual Private Servers where you'll be in charge of setting everything up, managing the device and take responsibility for any configurations that cause downtime.
Managed switches can be administered through a supported method, whether it be a command-line interface (accessed via secure shell, etc.), a web interface loaded in your web browser or Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) for remote access. This access will unblock various options, including port speed, virtual LANs, redundancy, port mirroring, and Quality of Service (QoS) for traffic prioritization. All of this means you can prioritize traffic for specified ports — you're streaming 4K Netflix to your Xbox One, you'll want maximum bandwidth speed and quality to the Xbox, the rest of your network will be throttled back to limit buffering.
When looking at managed switches, there are two types available. Smart switches have a limited number of options for configuration and are more affordable than their fully-managed siblings — ideal for home and office use. Fully managed solutions are targeted at servers and enterprises, offering a wide array of tools and features to manage the immediate network better.
Managed switches are designed for intense workloads, high amounts of traffic and deployments where custom configurations are a necessity.
This 20-port Gigabit switch is ideal for a range of scenarios, including rack deployment as a 1U layer. Just because managed switches allow you to go deep and change a whole range of settings, Cisco makes it easy for beginners to get started with the SG-300.
When looking for a more affordable switch to some of the monstrosities you can find, Netgear offers the excellent GS108E with eight Gigabit ports to hook up all your networked devices. The switch also comes rocking an easy-to-use GUI to manage everything that passes through.
TP-Link offers some killer networking equipment and this five-port managed switch is ideal for a small office setup or in the home for connecting gaming hardware and media servers. The small unit houses some serious features usually found in more expensive switches like diagnostics, QoS, and more despite the budget price.
Unmanaged Ethernet Switches
Where a managed switch requires, well, some management in exchange for your network working exactly how you want, an unmanaged switch works with no input from you. These networking devices will work in the most basic form, allowing for your devices to connect with one another. The configuration is locked to OEM specification and provides consumers peace of mind to connect everything up and get going.
Think of unmanaged switches as adding additional ethernet ports to your network. Should you have a limited number of available outlets on routers and access points, unmanaged switches are perfect for allowing for additional hardware to be connected. Unmanaged switches are best suited for home and small office use.
Unmanaged switches come at all sizes and prices and the Netgear GS316 is a 16-port monster, but still isn't ideal for server rack deployment. Boasting the ability to simply connect devices and get started with automated processes in place, this switch is a breeze to set up and use.
Unmanaged switches are pretty basic compared to managed counterparts and this eight-port offering from D-Link is the perfect example of this. The affordable price tag doesn't make this a bad switch, however, sporting support for IEEE 802.1p QoS traffic prioritization.
Cheap and cheerful is what sums up this TP-Link switch.
A managed switch allows you to have more control over the network as well as all traffic that moves through the device. An unmanaged switch takes this control away and handles everything automatically. The former is for advanced users, and the latter is specifically built for beginners and those who wish to simply build a network and leave it to technology to oversee.
We've run through the basics when it comes to switches — both managed and unmanaged — but which route you travel down is entirely up to you. Should you be comfortable with managing a LAN and configuring everything then a managed switch is a powerful option. Those who wish to keep things simple at home should go with an unmanaged solution.
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Rich Edmonds was formerly a Senior Editor of PC hardware at Windows Central, covering everything related to PC components and NAS. He's been involved in technology for more than a decade and knows a thing or two about the magic inside a PC chassis. You can follow him on Twitter at @RichEdmonds.
I haven't seen a managed switch yet that doesn't just work right out of the box. None that I've ever worked with had to be setup in order to function effectively the same as an unmanaged switch. So if someone thinks they might like the functionality of a managed switch but doesn't necessarily want to take time to get it up and going, they actually don't need to do anything to it before it will pass network traffic.
Some models of Cisco manage able switch comes with web gui disable & no IP assign yet, user needs to access it with serial port to enable them with CLI. It is better for regular/common user to avoid managed switch, it's more expensive anyway.
You're talking about the Catalyst range of switches. The Small Business range pick up an address from DHCP (if running on the LAN) and enable the HTTP interface by default. Although they are cheaper and supposedly simpler to manage than the Catalyst switches, there is still no reason for a normal user, or even most IT Pros to get a managed switch.
It isn't just the Catalyst range that runs out of the box. I've never seen one that doesn't. Most people wouldn't benefit that much from one, but if someone is on the fence there isn't much of any reason to not get managed at this point. They aren't that much more expensive, and they have an upgrade path. I use multiple managed switches at home. It has made things run more smoothly, reduced the amount of hardware (fewer switches due to the ability to create VLANs), and has been a real boon when I need to troubleshoot a network issue.
Who has a serial port these days?
Pretty much everyone with a usb connection on their PC. You can pickup usb serial adapters for about $3. They work perfectly fine connecting to managed rj45 console port.
- If its only about regular files respectively mundane network traffic,
a lower-cost switch probably will do the job no matter what. However:
If you plan to stream isochronic data like video, it might make sense to invest in a more expensive switch. I have a 50 Mbit DSL line and did experience problems connecting my Fire TV box to a (now fairly old unmanaged) switch.
When I connected the Ethernet cable directly to my router, the problems went away. Ethernet switches can be quite expensive, depending on their features. When buying one, one should check whether the switch handles high res videos appropriately. You will find infos about this feature in the description of device.
Most vendors explicitly do mention that a specific router is ok for video. If video handling is not mentioned by a vendor for a certain device,
don't touch this SKU it if you want to stream video over it. Also:
Go for Gigabit switches only, 10/100 is ok only for printers and office files.
10/100 switches might do the job,
but one day they might not as the services and devices you use become better and more demanding.
So it is better to have some headroom. Even you do not have a gigabit DSL line (which is normal, unfortunately):
Gigabit refers to the total capacity of all network traffic occuring simultanously a switch can handle.
In addition to that: Ethernet has a lot of protocol overhead build in to make sure data do arrive reliably.
Always subtract 30-40% of the advertised transmission capacity,
this is what you get (at most) in practise. This applies to WLAN "speeds", powerline modems etc. as well.
I always cut those numbers in half "to be on the save side". This is a switch that says it supports video:
If you plan to install a couple of web- or surveillance cams,
you might also consider a switch that supports Power-over-Ethernet. This means, that you can connect a cam with an Ethernet cable
and you're good. No need to have an extra power supply for the cam. Also have an eye on the power consumption of the switch
as you likely never will power it off, it will draw power 24/7/365. -
Just a small correction about "Gigabit refers to the total capacity of all network traffic occuring simultanously a switch can handle". Most switches have a ports speed and a higher internal backplane speed. Gigabit refers to the capacity of each port, a single link between the backplane and a device.
In enteprise-grade switches, the backplane is often sized depending on the number of ports. For example, a Catalyst 2960-L has a 20 Gbps switching bandwidth for the 8-ports model, 36 Gbps for the 16-ports, 56 Gbps for the 24-ports, and 104 Gbps for the 48-ports. Considering the 8 and 16 ports have two extra uplink ports, and the 24 and 48 have 4 extra uplink ports, it means all ports can take advantage of their full 1Gbps full-duplex capacity simultaneously.
(source: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/catalyst-2960-...) A cheaper switch with a backplane that is not sized to support the maximum speed of all ports means you will slow down traffic when several devices are busy simultaneously. This is called a blocking switch fabric.
Good info, thanks. A higher backplane speed makes a lot of sense
especially because the backplane traffic is internal
and thus does no go through a Phy which is a limiting factor. - -
Most mid- to high-end switchesquote the backplane speed in the product specifications too.
He's kinda right only to the extent of consumer level budget switches. They tend to have a backplane that's the same as the ports. They just connect to your router via ethernet and basically act as a splitter.
"Also have an eye on the power consumption of the switch as you likely never will power it off, it will draw power 24/7/365" This is good advise, I would add to look for Energy Efficient Ethernet (sometimes called Green Ethernet), which will lower the power consumption depending on activity and suspend ports that are disconnected (unused or connected to suspended devices).
This is one of the reason modern PCs and consoles switch to 10Mbps when suspended, to keep connected-standby networking while allowing the ethernet hardware both in the PC/console and switch to move into a lower-power mode. This also means you should never fix the speed of a switch port, dynamic speed negotiation is required for this to work.
That's good advice, thanks!
@Fred_EM actually Gigabit Switches are fairly cheap these days, especially unmanaged variants. You can buy a unmanaged 5 port gigabit switches for £10 or so. I would not recommend anyone buy 10/100 switches at all since it makes no economic sense whatsoever as that standard is pretty much redundant. Plus you forego the ability to upgrade your network and not to mention all switches have auto-sensing ports. Each consumer grade switch takes minimal power so it's negligible in the grand scheme of things. The only scenario you have to keep an eye on switch is when you use POE switch (especially 802.3at switches that supply 30 watts per port and 60 watt at the extreme high end) that provides power and data per port. Even though 802.3af POE switches provide 15.4 watt per port so it doesn't mean for example all 5 port poe 802.3af switches have a power budget of 77 Watts, some have a power budget of 60 or 46 watts or so.
Good input, thanks!
I rather use my cisco than alot of netgear etc, I work in a dc and see so many reasons why you don't go for these options for customers main switches. When you see there colo's with netgears you shudder
"Should you buy a managed or unmanaged network switch?" quick answer: If you have to ask, you don't want a managed switch.
Was thinking that should been the first paragraph in the article.
If you have a small, flat (single subnet) network you simply don't need a managed switch. Most activity on a home network won't even touch the sides of a half decent unmanaged switch, save your pennies and your sanity! A more useful article would be what wireless infrastructure one should consider in the home/office as most devices in those environments are wirelessly connected these days.
Actually, I will disagree with you on the basics. With a very slight (20%) increase in cost there is a very real increase in quality and reliability. Since most managed switches are really designed for business that is really where good companies get most of their profits. So, if you're talking about $30 for an unmanaged and $40 for a managed switch that is a VERY small expenditure to buy a much better product.
Maybe in the context of this article there's some truth to your opinion. I work in a school as an network admin and a proper fully managed edge switch goes for a couple grand (AUD) whereas this article is referring to what I'd class as 'toy switches', suitable for the home environment. Most people don't need to manage their home network, they simply need to plug in all their gear on a flat network and just have everything talk. That extra level of 'management' (read: complexity) comes at its own expense of time/sanity and unless you have a complicated home network it does not warrant that expense for what you might perceive as a better quality product. In fact, I would argue that if the price is close to an unmanaged switch then its quality is probably lower than that of an equivalently priced unmanaged switch and it would be better to invest in something with better quality components and warranty. 'Managed' switches in this price bracket simply aren't as sophisticated as what you find in enterprise, not even close.
It might be a small expenditure, but for what gain? If you literally won't use the functionality of the managed switch, you won't see any benefits. Why bother? More than likely, a large business *needs* the functionality because they'll likely have multiple subnets, QoS concerns, etc. A small office? Hell, they're probably just looking for more ports than the router/modem combo their internet provider gave them. A $15 switch will do. It really comes down to requirements. I would *never* provide the advice that a managed switch is worth the extra investment without knowing more about the network topology.
It would seem like there is a shortage of things to write about at WindowsCentral. "Should you buy a managed or unmanaged switch?" shouldn't even be a question, but i'll answer it anyway. No, if you are a regular user you do not need a managed switch. I dare say even most IT Pro's wont have a managed switch at home. I've been a network engineer for nearly 13 years and have only had a managed switch for the past couple, and that is only because I set up a permanent lab at home. There is just no use case for the majority of people to even think about using a managed switch.
I want to agree with you, but there's already more than one commenter here advising folks to buy managed over unmanaged. Clearly it's a question people need answered. I just wish Windows Central gave the right answer and basically reiterated what you said.
A modern home has at least 12 always connected media devices and with the push for automation and IP cameras everywhere, I can tell you that network traffic is becoming a real problem (buffering, crashes, random dropouts are all symptoms). Even if you don't plan or need to use advanced features Like VLAN deployment or traffic shaping, using a good managed switch with a backplane that is at least double the total port speed (# of ports x max speed --i.e 1Gbp) goes a long way for total network stability. But if you like unexplained behavior and needing to reboot your router/gateway on a regular basis, then ignore me. For the record, if you don't configure it, most managed switches will just work like an unmanaged switch but with better hardware
I won't question whether a managed switch has better hardware than an unmanaged one. Not all devices are equal, and I'm sure a 48-port unmanaged gigabit switch is more powerful than an 8-port managed one, but wouldn't doubt that comparing 8-port to 8-port would be correct. However, with your comment on what a modern home has: 12+ media devices, smart devices, cameras, etc; the majority of these are connected via wifi, through a wireless router. If anything, your argument is evidence that a quality wireless router is more important than a secondary switch for wired devices. I was lucky when I built my home a decade ago, and wired every room with Cat5e, and all these connect through a single gigabit switch. I've never had issues with devices connected through that switch. My wireless router is just one item on that switch, and the only connectivity issues I ever face are directly responsible through that router.
How are you connecting your switch that has a backplane higher than gigabit? And what are you connecting it to? Most homes have a router or consumer modem that these switches will be connecting to. They'll likely be bottlenecked at a gigabit connection for the backplane. Getting anything higher requires additional hardware they likely don't have.
Any switch worth the money supports full-wired speed on all ports at all times. That's the whole idea of a switch in the first place.
If you have 8 (or more) ports of Gigabit traffic that high, you need a Layer 3 switch anyway so you can set up some VLANs to segregate your traffic (and to monitor it.)
If you DO spring for a "managed switch" make sure you check out the cost for continuing maintenance on it. Cisco doesn't give that away for free. You have to sign up for a "maintenance contract" and those can get very expensive, but are worth it since Cisco (and other vendors) are always finding exploits in their iOS and putting out patches for them.
The very best use of a home managed switch is to set up VLANS for your Wireless, Lan, Camera, and video streaming traffic.Keeping them separate on the switch will avoid any one causing issues.
One more thing. If you DO purchase a "managed switch" make sure you buy a UPS for it!
Managed switches do NOT like having the power bounce on them! More than once I have had my Cisco switches hosed by power glitches and they can take up to 30 min. to reload the iOS from a backup.
and MAKE BACKUPS of you CONFIG FILES and save them offline! and CHANGE THE DEFAULT Passwords!
There is nothing worse than slaving for hours to set up a cool VLAN structure and lose it all by forgetting to A) Commit the change, and/or B) Make a backup file of the committed config.
Especially if it is 6 months later and you don't remember what you did (or the password.)
Although I'd advise against looking at a single persons experience, but mine has proved quite the opposite of what you'd expect. I've used managed switches in part of my network for years, unfortunately they have all been the switches that have failed, I've had ones simply die or stop individual ports working, but by far the worst was the switch that in its default state, was set to use an IP that was the same as around 50% of the routers on the market, meaning, on first connection most people are going to have issues, worst still once configured to work correctly, if the device was powered down, it would lose the settings, leading to the random dropouts, crashes, etc. you would associate with cheap non-managed equipment, which I've never had on my unmanaged switches. I probably have a pretty complicated network compared to most, but I've never seen the symptoms you describe from my cheap non-managed kit, only the expensive stuff that required a little more than a cursory knowledge of networking to fix. Having worked in IT for a very long time, I've found managed kit to always be less reliable than the un-managed, but then you'd expect it since you've added a considerable amount of hardware and software on top of the standard switch, all available to go wrong. I'd love to know if the managed switches use the same networking chips as the commodity hardware, I wouldn't be surprised if the managed device simply add a layer of hardware and software in front, especially at the budget end of the market, a cheap Netgear is not going to use the same tech. as a Cisco enterprise device. There's a place for managed switches but only were they are needed, I wonder how many home users are at the level to need one,.
One of the cases when you would want managed switch is when you have central file server and want to use 802.3ad, colloquially referred to as "link aggregation". It was a while since I was looking at off-the-shelf NAS boxes, but it did seem that consumer segment started warming up to having two Ethernet interfaces.
If you want a password protected LAN network, can a switch handle this or would you need to route the traffic through a network server first?
For noobs setting up a home network unmanaged is good enough. For Enterprise networks you should always get a managed layer 2/3 switch.
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