Update, April 6, 2018: Previously I stated that you could get automatically banned even if you didn't share the screenshots publically, but it's unclear whether or not that is the case as I've been given conflicting reports. At the very least, Microsoft should disable screenshot sharing by default for Mature-rated games, rather than banning innocent people who were unaware of the auto-uploading oversight.
Update, April 6, 2018: Xbox CVP Mike Ybarra tweeted some additional information, stating that Microsoft is working to improve the situation for users who want to share content on Xbox Live. Microsoft is investigating to see if any affected users were banned unfairly.
Update, April 7, 2018: We're seeing reports that affected users are now being unbanned.
Microsoft's NSFW-shy enforcement mechanisms have been banning people from Xbox Live for screenshotting a game on Xbox Live, known as Metropolis: Lux Obscura.
Metropolis: Lux Obscura is a $7.99 match-3 style puzzle game which intersects with a Sin City-style noir comic book, featuring many many racy scenes. It sports the "Mature +17" ESRB rating for violence, blood, drug references, strong language, nudity, and sexual content.
Players using the Xbox to take screenshots or video clips using Microsoft's own Xbox Game DVR have been finding, however, that doing so can land you with hefty bans (thanks, K4rn4ge) on Xbox Live for "pornographic content."
It's unfair of me to call it hypocritical, but at the very least Metropolis: Lux Obscura raises inadequacies in Xbox Live's banning mechanisms, which are effectively entrapping people for using Xbox systems on Xbox games, without an effective warning of rule violation.
Microsoft has an extensive code of conduct list buried somewhere in its website, but it would seem far more logical to simply either block Game DVR on games that Microsoft finds embarrassing, or add a "NSFW" content blocker option filter across Xbox Live. At least warn people that using Xbox Live systems on Xbox-approved games can get you banned.
Hilariously, Metropolis: Lux Obscura is available not only on Steam, but even the family-friendly Nintendo Switch, and neither of those platforms have been handing out bans for playing and sharing the game that I can find.
This issue has been raised before on other Xbox games with adult themes, so I doubt it'll be fixed or improved any time soon. But until it does, take this is a PSA word of caution: be careful when you take screenshots of Xbox games, Microsoft's banning systems are very prudish.
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Jez Corden a Managing Editor at Windows Central, focusing primarily on all things Xbox and gaming. Jez is known for breaking exclusive news and analysis as relates to the Microsoft ecosystem while being powered by caffeine. Follow on Twitter @JezCorden and listen to his Xbox Two podcast, all about, you guessed it, Xbox!